(Linux) Chapter 1: Origin and Short History

Created by a Finnish student Linus Torvalds in 1991, the project was initially (still today) to create a free operating system based on kernel.

As comparison, the Windows OS is based on NT Kernel and the Apple OS is based on Darwin Kernel.

Kernel

Ubuntu, one of many Linux distros, became very popular, thanks to its very easy-to-use approach and versatile uses.
13 years of improvements from the community and overseen by the software company Canonical ( Private and based in UK) created the increasing interest of the IT business world.

canonical

Core Philosophy:
-Free of charge Distribution for public and enterprises
-Fully support by the company Canonical
-Core applications free, improved by community and open source

   Version Names Main Feature
     
Ubuntu 17.04 Zesty Zapus Linux Kernel 4.8
Ubuntu 16.04 Yakkety Yak  
Ubuntu 14.04 Trusty  
Ubuntu 13.10 Saucy  
Ubuntu 13.04 Raring  
Ubuntu 12.10 Quantal  
Ubuntu 12.04 Precise  
Ubuntu 11.10 Oneiric New Desktop Environment (DE) - Unity
Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwhal  
Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid Lynx Ubuntu One cloud storage solution - Ubuntu One music storage
Ubuntu Software Center 2.0 - Unbuntu Software Store
Ubuntu 09.10 Karmic Koala
Ubuntu 09.04 Jaunty Jackalope
Ubuntu 08.10 Intrepid Ibex New ease-of-use process
Ubuntu 08.04 Hardy Heron 2nd version as LTS - Introduce in the business environment 
Ubuntu 07.10 Gutsy Gibbon Regarded as the most stable version at that moment
Ubuntu 07.04 Feisty Fawn  
Ubuntu 06.06 Drapper Drake Long Term Support (LTS)
Ubuntu 05.04 Hoary Hedgehog Regular update & Support
Ubuntu 04.10 Warty Wartgog 1st public Release